Organic Chemicals

Organic Chemicals

Oil & Gas

Oil Refining › Vacuum Unit


The Vacuum Unit is fed with Crude Bottoms and is injected with steam. Passing upwards through wash oil stages, the gas exits to an overhead condenser, where cleaned gas goes to LT Ends, and Naphtha and Light Cycle Oil are produced as liquids.
From side streams the Vacuum...
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Oil & Gas

Oil Refining › Merox Unit


In (UOP) Merox Units, where crudes are acidic, Caustic is used to reduce H2S traces and the Mercaptan Sulphur content. Caustic Treating Systems are done with a Pre-Washer followed by a Reactor vessel.
The mixture is then fed to a liquid-liquid separator to remove the water and caustic from...
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Liquid-Liquid Separation

Internals for Liquid-Liquid Separators

COALESCERS
Coalescers in Cylinder Form
Today, two stage filter separator technology allows you to have the smallest possible vessel diameter, resulting in the lowest cost, while removing aerosol liquids and solid particles efficiently. The separator’s first stage contains replaceable BCE-GLP coalescing filters mounted on a tube sheet. Here the larger...
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Liquid-Liquid Separation

Oil-Water, Water-Oil and Other 2 Phase Separator Packages

‘Becophase’ Liquid-Liquid Coalescers
Coalescing technology and media are also used to separate immiscible liquids. These are typically emulsions or hazy mixtures, and by separating them it can reduce the volume of contaminated liquid effluent, or improve a process or a final product quality. There are many different separation needs in...
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Oil & Gas

Oil Refining › MEA Unit


The Amine gas treating, also known as gas sweetening, refers to a process that uses aqueous solutions of various alkylamines (commonly known as amines) to remove hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from gases. Aqueous solutions of MEA (monoethanolamine) are used as a gas stream scrubbing liquid in amine treaters to...
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Oil & Gas

Oil Refining › Naptha Hydrotreater


The Naptha Hydrotreater prepares feedstock for downstream reforming or isomerization. The naphtha feed is mixed with hydrogen rich recycle gas. The mixed feed is then heated and then fed to the reactor, which contains a cobalt-molybdenum or nickel-molybdenum catalyst to convert contaminants such as sulphur, nitrogen, oxygenates and halides ...
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Oil & Gas

Oil Refining › Ethylene Plant


In an Ethylene plant there are multiple stages of compression, kinked with Knock Out Drums before and after the compressors (see below), and also Water Quench and Caustic Scrubbing Towers. The liquid from the Quench Tower is a mixture of oil and water.

PROBLEMS TO SOLVE
a) Prevent...
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Oil & Gas

Oil Refining › Produced Water Effluent Treatment


The produced water effluent from a refinery can be treated in multiple stages, using appropriate equipment for each stage.
Primary Separation with a Plate separator (CPI) to give an Oil removal efficiency down to 500 ppm .
Secondary Separation by Induced Gas Flotation (IGF) or IGF- Stage Tank...
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