Oil & Gas

Oil & Gas

Oil Refining › FCC Fractionator and Pipestill


The Fractionator is fed from the reactor and side strippers are injected with steam. Naphtha and Light Cycle Oil are produced.
In a Pipestill, fed from a crude furnace, the side strippers produce Jet A, Gas Oil and Diesel or Heavy Gas Oil.
PROBLEMS TO SOLVE
a) Prevent...
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Oil Refining › Vacuum Unit


The Vacuum Unit is fed with Crude Bottoms and is injected with steam. Passing upwards through wash oil stages, the gas exits to an overhead condenser, where cleaned gas goes to LT Ends, and Naphtha and Light Cycle Oil are produced as liquids.
From side streams the Vacuum...
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Oil Refining › Merox Unit


In (UOP) Merox Units, where crudes are acidic, Caustic is used to reduce H2S traces and the Mercaptan Sulphur content. Caustic Treating Systems are done with a Pre-Washer followed by a Reactor vessel.
The mixture is then fed to a liquid-liquid separator to remove the water and caustic from...
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Oil Refining › MEA Unit


The Amine gas treating, also known as gas sweetening, refers to a process that uses aqueous solutions of various alkylamines (commonly known as amines) to remove hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and carbon dioxide (CO2) from gases. Aqueous solutions of MEA (monoethanolamine) are used as a gas stream scrubbing liquid in amine treaters to...
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Oil Refining › Naptha Hydrotreater


The Naptha Hydrotreater prepares feedstock for downstream reforming or isomerization. The naphtha feed is mixed with hydrogen rich recycle gas. The mixed feed is then heated and then fed to the reactor, which contains a cobalt-molybdenum or nickel-molybdenum catalyst to convert contaminants such as sulphur, nitrogen, oxygenates and halides ...
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Oil Refining › Ethylene Plant


In an Ethylene plant there are multiple stages of compression, kinked with Knock Out Drums before and after the compressors (see below), and also Water Quench and Caustic Scrubbing Towers. The liquid from the Quench Tower is a mixture of oil and water.

PROBLEMS TO SOLVE
a) Prevent...
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Oil Refining › Produced Water Effluent Treatment


The produced water effluent from a refinery can be treated in multiple stages, using appropriate equipment for each stage.
Primary Separation with a Plate separator (CPI) to give an Oil removal efficiency down to 500 ppm .
Secondary Separation by Induced Gas Flotation (IGF) or IGF- Stage Tank...
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